The Puzzle of Diaspora Bonds: A Case Study of Israel's Program

Many countries have attempted to tap their diasporas by issuing bonds.  This has particularly been the case in times of dire need (wars, pandemics, international sanctions, financial crises, and more).  Ukraine is the most recent to have attempted to do this and failed.  Other recent failures include Pakistan, India, Ethiopia and Greece, some of whom turned to bank deposit schemes when attempts to do full scale bond issuances did not succeed
A superb new paper by Doug Mulliken, motivated by the many failures to issue diaspora bonds, does a deep dive into the one program that has not only been successful, but has remained so for over a seventy-five year period: The Israel Bonds program.  
Doug's paper, titled, "It’s not just money; you are investing in your identity”: Israel, the Jewish Diaspora, and the Israel Bonds program,is on
The abstract reads:
Israel has been selling diaspora bonds for almost as long as the country has been in existence, with the original 1951 Independence Bonds being issued just three years after the State of Israel’s establishment as an independent nation. For over 70 years, both in times of crisis and times of strength, Israel has used the Israel Bonds program to call on the Jewish diaspora — most significantly in the United States but also in Canada and across the world — to provide the country with a layer of financial security that is, in many ways, unprecedented in modern history. The importance of Israel’s diaspora bond sales has evolved over time: it functioned as a load-bearing support of Israel’s economy in the program’s early days when, in the aftermath of World War II, sovereign debt markets had essentially disappeared; it now serves a far more important symbolic function, allowing Jews across the world to develop a connection with Israel by contributing some modest amount to the country’s well-being.This analysis considers the social and historical context of the Israel Bonds program, taking into consideration the almost emotional connection that the bonds allow members of the Jewish diaspora to feel towards the State of Israel. Most importantly, this study examines the terms of the bonds themselves, comparing both how Israel Bonds mirror traditional Eurobonds and, in particular, how the two types of issuances differ. With this, the analysis hopes to shine a light on an under-studied, but incredibly significant, aspect of Israel’s economic development.