Central banks

The globalization of climate change: amplification of climate-related physical risks through input-output linkages

While global supply chains have recently gained attention in the context of the Covid-related crisis as well as the war in Ukraine, their role in transmitting and amplifying climate-related physical risks across countries has received surprisingly little attention. To address this shortcoming, this paper for the first time combines country-level GDP losses due to climate-related physical risks with a global Input-Output model. More specifically, climate-related GDP-at-risk data are used to quantify the potential direct impact of physical risks on GDP at the country or regional level.

The globalization of climate change: amplification of climate-related physical risks through input-output linkages

While global supply chains have recently gained attention in the context of the Covid-related crisis as well as the war in Ukraine, their role in transmitting and amplifying climate-related physical risks across countries has received surprisingly little attention. To address this shortcoming, this paper for the first time combines country-level GDP losses due to climate-related physical risks with a global Input-Output model. More specifically, climate-related GDP-at-risk data are used to quantify the potential direct impact of physical risks on GDP at the country or regional level.

Private markets, public risk? Financial stability implications of alternative funding sources

Euro area private markets have grown significantly in recent years, providing alternative funding sources for companies and diversification benefits for investors. While private markets are currently small relative to public markets and bank lending in the euro area, continued strong growth, financial innovation and opaqueness in private markets could contribute to financial stability risks. Adverse economic shocks could result in rising defaults, valuation corrections and losses for private funds and their investors.

Stress testing with multiple scenarios: a tale on tails and reverse stress scenarios

This paper proposes an operational approach to stress testing, allowing one to assess the banking sector’s vulnerability in multiple plausible macro-financial scenarios. The approach helps identify macro-financial risk factors of particular relevance for the banking system and individual banks and searches for scenarios that could push them towards their worst outcomes. We demonstrate this concept using a macroprudential stress testing model for the euro area.

Stress testing with multiple scenarios: a tale on tails and reverse stress scenarios

This paper proposes an operational approach to stress testing, allowing one to assess the banking sector’s vulnerability in multiple plausible macro-financial scenarios. The approach helps identify macro-financial risk factors of particular relevance for the banking system and individual banks and searches for scenarios that could push them towards their worst outcomes. We demonstrate this concept using a macroprudential stress testing model for the euro area.

The rise of artificial intelligence: benefits and risks for financial stability

The emergence of generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools represents a significant technological leap forward, with the potential to have a substantial impact on the financial system. Conceptually, AI brings both benefits and risks to the financial system. Practically, the overall impact will depend on how the challenges related to data, model development and deployment are addressed – both at the level of financial institutions and for the financial system as a whole.

Advancements in stress-testing methodologies for financial stability applications

This paper provides an overview of stress-testing methodologies in Europe, with a focus on the advancements made by the European Central Bank’s Financial Stability Committee Working Group on Stress Testing (WGST). Over a four-year period, the WGST played a pivotal role in refining stress-testing practices, promoting collaboration among central banks and supervisory authorities and addressing challenges in the evolving financial landscape.

FEDS Paper: Personal Tax Changes and Financial Well-being: Evidence from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

Christine L. Dobridge, Joanne Hsu, and Mike ZabekWe estimate the effects of personal income tax decreases on financial well-being, including qualitative subjective assessments and quantitative measures. A plausibly causal design shows that tax decreases in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made survey respondents more likely to say they were “living comfortably” financially, with null effects at lower levels of subjective financial well-being.

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